There is no HIV-specific criminal law in Rwanda, however, the law on prevention and punishment of gender-based violence, enacted in 2008, includes a provision that allows for a person to be prosecuted and sentenced to life imprisonment for intentionally transmitting a ‘terminal disease’ sexually. As there have been no cases reported under this law it is difficult to establish what diseases would be covered, however it appears that HIV would be prosecutable under this offence.
Law N°59/2008 on prevention and punishment of Gender-Based violence
Article 29: Penalty for intentionally transmitting a terminal disease
Any person guilty of intentionally transmitting a terminal disease by sexual way to someone else shall be liable to life imprisonment.
Report presenting the results of a survey on HIV criminalization in African countries where French is spoken, conducted from May to September 2017.
Authors: Stéphanie Claivaz-Loranger & Cécile Kazatchkine for the Canadian HIV Legal Network and HIV JUSTICE WORLDWIDE