USA

Number of reported cases At least 2905 How do we calculate the number of cases

Overview

The United States of America was, as far as as we are aware, the first country in the world to prosecute people living with HIV and to enact HIV-specific criminal laws, commencing in 1986/7. 

Each US state and territory – as well as the US military – treats alleged HIV non-disclosure, potential or perceived exposure and/or alleged transmission, differently.

Case numbers for any particular US state may not always tally with the number of reported cases on our site, primarily because our cases database only goes back to 2008.

In addition, there may also appear to an extremely large disparity between the number of cases in certain states compared with others.  This is not only due to a number of important limitations that we highlight on our Disclaimer page, but also because in-depth research by the Williams Institute on California, Florida, Georgia and Missouri has unearthed many previously unreported cases.

For a comprehensive overview and analysis of HIV-related criminal and similar laws and policies in the United States, please see The Center for HIV Law and Policy’s ‘HIV Criminalization in the United States: A Sourcebook on State and Federal HIV Criminal Law and Practice’, available at: http://www.hivlawandpolicy.org/sourcebook

More information is available on the following states

Alabama

Number of reported cases 3
First reported case 1989

Alaska

Number of reported cases 0

Arizona

Number of reported cases 0

Arkansas

Number of reported cases 16
First reported case 1997

California

Number of reported cases 800
First reported case 1988

Colorado

Number of reported cases 7
First reported case 2004

Connecticut

Number of reported cases 0

Delaware

Number of reported cases 0

FED Military

Number of reported cases 7
First reported case 1986

Florida

Number of reported cases 623
First reported case 1990

Georgia

Number of reported cases 552
First reported case 1988

Hawaii

Number of reported cases 0

Idaho

Number of reported cases 55
First reported case 1998

Illinois

Number of reported cases 100
First reported case 1993

Indiana

Number of reported cases 22
First reported case 1989

Iowa

Number of reported cases 26
First reported case 2001

Kansas

Number of reported cases 6
First reported case 2006

Kentucky

Number of reported cases 9
First reported case 1998

Louisiana

Number of reported cases 65
First reported case 1993

Maine

Number of reported cases 0

Maryland

Number of reported cases 13
First reported case 1996

Massachusetts

Number of reported cases 4
First reported case 2003

Michigan

Number of reported cases 55
First reported case 1997

Minnesota

Number of reported cases 4
First reported case 2009

Mississippi

Number of reported cases 13
First reported case 2008

Missouri

Number of reported cases 265
First reported case 1990

Montana

Number of reported cases 2
First reported case 2012

Nebraska

Number of reported cases 0

Nevada

Number of reported cases 3
First reported case 1994

New Hampshire

Number of reported cases 2
First reported case 2002

New Jersey

Number of reported cases 5
First reported case 2010

New Mexico

Number of reported cases 1

New York

Number of reported cases 9
First reported case 1997

North Carolina

Number of reported cases 5
First reported case 2008

North Dakota

Number of reported cases 4
First reported case 2016

Ohio

Number of reported cases 55
First reported case 2003

Oklahoma

Number of reported cases 12
First reported case 2003

Oregon

Number of reported cases 4
First reported case 1992

Pennsylvania

Number of reported cases 19
First reported case 2006

Rhode Island

Number of reported cases 0

South Carolina

Number of reported cases 19
First reported case 2008

South Dakota

Number of reported cases 4
First reported case 2002

Tennessee

Number of reported cases 61
First reported case 1999

Texas

Number of reported cases 23
First reported case 1992

Utah

Number of reported cases 2
First reported case 2010

Vermont

Number of reported cases 2

Virginia

Number of reported cases 9
First reported case 2008

Washington

Number of reported cases 5
First reported case 1992

West Virginia

Number of reported cases 0

Wisconsin

Number of reported cases 8
First reported case 2008

Wyoming

Number of reported cases 0

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Center for HIV Law and Policy for allowing us to link to their original research and analysis on HIV-related criminalisation in the United States.

This information was last reviewed in April 2020